Abby’s K2 Serum

CBD Fibromyalgia Cream

Abby’s K2 Serum is a skin care formulation that includes 510 mg CBD per ounce to address inflammation with the addition of Sea Buckthorn as a strong antioxidant and Lion’s Mane mushroom extract. 

$54.98

Ingredients:

Distilled Water, Lion’s Mane, Seabuckthorn, Black cumin seed oil, Castor oil, Chia seed oil, Coconut oil, Argan oil, Tamanu oil, Joponica camillia oil, Tamanu butter, Shea butter, Sunflower oil, Sea Buckthorn oil, Canabidiol (CBD), Cetyl alcohol, Stearic acid, Xanthan gum, Cannabidiol (CBD), Safflower based phosphtidylcholine, Ethanol, (Germal plus preservative).

ABBY’S K2 SERUM

$54.98

INGREDIENTS:

Distilled Water, Lion’s Mane, Seabuckthorn, Black cumin seed oil, Castor oil, Chia seed oil, Coconut oil, Argan oil, Tamanu oil, Joponica camillia oil, Tamanu butter, Shea butter, Sunflower oil, Sea Buckthorn oil, Canabidiol (CBD), Cetyl alcohol, Stearic acid, Xanthan gum, Cannabidiol (CBD), Safflower based phosphtidylcholine, Ethanol, (Germal plus preservative).

Additional information

Weight 2.35 oz
Dimensions 1.75 × 1.75 × 1.75 in

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Product Details

Our skin is a very important organ composed of a complex system of biology that act as our first line of defense against the outside world1. It is the interface between the internal bioactivity of our bodies and the external environment. It continuously protects the body from microorganism invasion, ultraviolet irradiation, allergens and irritants. It also functions to regulate temperature and maintain hydration.

The outermost layer of our skin (epidermis) is called the stratum corneum and when properly maintained will enable the skin to carry out it’s protective function, pH and flexibility. It is composed of an intricate architecture of corneocytes, natural moisturizing factors such as lactic acid, amino acids, urea, glycosaminoglycans; and a level and ratio of intercellular lipids that form basically a ‘brick-and-mortar’ structure2 that is the barrier layer the stratum corneum is composed of. The stratum corneum matrix is composed of approximately 20% free fatty acids, 20% cholesterol, and 60% glucosylceramides, which are interspersed in structured layers called the lamellar phase of the stratum corneum3. The maximum lateral packing and therefore the greatest barrier function of the stratum corneum lipids occurs at about 4 to 8 microns below the outer surface of stratum corneum4. An essential fatty acid, which is an important building block for the intercellular lipid complex is linoleic acid along with keratin proteins and surface flaggrin proteins that function to maintain hydration of the stratum corneum5. In conjunction with cholesterols, free fatty acids and ceramides, effective skin barriers are constructed to prevent transepidermal water loss6,7.

A defective skin barrier will allow entry of irritants, allergens and microbes that together with an exaggerated immune response will result in skin inflammation resulting in atopic dermatitis, that can lead to psoriasis, ichthyosis, asteatotic eczema and contact dermatitis8,9. A defective skin barrier function results in water loss in the stratum corneum, which leads to loss of hydration in the skin and an increase in skin pH. This is also the mechanism chronologically aged skin demonstrates, which include decreased levels of stratum corneum lipids, natural moisturizing factors and water content10.
Exogenous and endogenous irritants and allergens can exacerbate skin-barrier dysfunction by damaging barrier-structural proteins, eliminating natural moisturizing factors and altering important lipid-based structures6.

Repairing the skin barrier function is facilitated by providing hydration via hydrophilic constituents and preventing transepidermal water loss by the use of moisturizers found in natural oils such as shea butter, jojoba oil and sunflower oils to name a few. It has been shown that such hydrophobic components diffuse into the intercellular space in the stratum corneum to enhance the structural integrity of the barrier11. The components found in natural oils work in synergy to enhance corneocyte adhesion, which keeps the stratum corneum smooth and flexible. Natural plant-based oils have been used for thousands of years by cultures all over the world to maintain vitality and wellness in various ways, including health and beauty12. An image of this system can be viewed on figure 1 below:

 

Figure 1: An image showing (a) structure of a normal cared for stratum corneum, (b) a non-cared for degenerated stratum corneum and (c) a repaired stratum corneum by natural plant-based oils. Taken from reference 13 without permission.

With a repaired and efficiently functioning barrier layer, one can use the lipids and compounds found in plant-based natural oils to deliver certain small organic molecules14,15 that can enter the body and engage in bio-chemistry that can aid in repair of damaged bio-systems16. For example, with the small organic molecule, cannabidiol (CBD) in binding the GPR55 super protein17-19, thereby ending inflammation induced pain caused by the neuro-toxic process of chromosomal messaging to the spine informing the brain of regional damage or injury that in turn responds by causing further inflammation due to the bio-chemistry involved in that response20.

It is a valid practice to deliver certain small bioactive organic compounds derived from natural plant products such as CBD, or Hericenones (A-H) and Erinacines (A-K & P-Q) compounds from Lion’s Mane mushroom extracts into the skin via a topical cream or lotion, such that those natural compounds may somehow aid in the repair of damaged nerve axions and stimulate neurite growth46 with the aim of decreasing neurological induced pain from diseases such as fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome.

Fibromyalgia is a painful condition afflicting many people in the world that does not have a very clear definition on a molecular level of its cause or mechanism of action. It has been shown however that an increased level of substance P in the synovial spinal fluid21 is present in patients suffering from fibromyalgia. Substance P is a large peptide that has an associative interaction with serotonin levels in the brain22 that appear to produce a heightened sense of pain49. It has been shown that beneath local tender points found on fibromyalgia patients exists a state of hypoxia on the skin23,24 above these tender points. Meaning low levels of oxygenation within this region.

Recent data suggests that an imbalance in the oxidant/antioxidant biosystem25 our body has may play a role in the development of fibromyalgia. It is proposed that fibromyalgia is caused by dysoxygenosis that results from persistent and incremental oxidative stress on enzymatic systems involved with cellular oxygen utilization26. During normal cellular respiration or rather mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as radicals or oxidants such as superoxide radical anion, hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxides that the body neutralizes by antioxidant enzymes such as manganese, copper/zinc coordinated superoxide dismutase, catalase, and GPx27. The effects of ROS can be mitigated by exogenous antioxidants such as vitamins E and C or endogenous antioxidants such as scavenger enzymes like superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and bilirubin28. The imbalance occurs when the antioxidant side of the system cannot keep up with the oxidant production side of cellular respiration. This leads to what is called oxidative stress in skeletal muscle and may come from microtrauma, aging or poor sleep. This is found in the muscle biopsy samples taken from fibromyalgia patients whereby a high level of oxidative damage to DNA33, lipids34 and protein35 are found. The damage to DNA involves detecting increased levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine36 (8-OhdG) for example. In fibromyalgia patients, a decrease level of superoxide dismutase (an antioxidant enzyme) was found along with an increased level of malondialdehyde34, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation. This is oxidized fatty material that adds to the cycle of pain. Furthermore, it was shown that higher levels of thiobarbituric acids reactive substance37 (TBARS) was present in fibromyalgia patients, which is another indicator of peroxidation of lipids. In a separate study high amounts of pentosidine serum levels in fibromyalgia patients were present compared to healthy control patients. Pentosidine serum is a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), which is an early glycation marker with fructosamine that is bound to serum albumin; this is an indicator of the onset of Alzheimers disease.

The imbalance of higher levels of reactive oxygen species can be interpreted as a mitochondrial defect associated with fibromyalgia patients29,30, the oxidant/antioxidant imbalance may be associated with the symptoms of fibromyalgia31 of wide spread pain and insomnia.

The mitochondria, a structural organism living in each of our cells that are known to produce fair amounts of reactive oxygen species. Among other things the mitochondria produce ATP in our cells, and it is the mitochondrial electron transport chain that is responsible for this production of ATP. During the energy transduction process, a small number of electrons leak oxygen prematurely, forming an oxygen superoxide anion free radical. This is a primary source of reactive oxygen species and can react with neighboring molecules to generate secondary reactive oxygen species. In general physiological conditions, these reactive oxygen species are essential for life, as they are involved in bactericidal activity of phagocytes and in signal transduction pathways, regulating cell growth and reduction-oxidation (redox) chemistry processes32.

However, a result of the imbalance of oxidant abundance and low levels of antioxidants, oxidative stress on the system is produced. This oxidative stress has been related in a number of neurological diseases such as the initiation and progression of Parkinson’s disease38, Huntington’s39 and the production of different biomarkers of oxidative stress-mediated events that are elevated in Alzheimer’s disease40.
This oxidant/antioxidant imbalance is proposed as a defect in the antioxidant system of the mitochondrial process, which means noticeably low levels of superoxide dismutase and coenzyme Q10 are produced. CoQ10 plays a crucial roll in cellular metabolism, acting as the electron carrier between complexes I and II and the complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It also regulates the uncoupling proteins, the transition pore, β-oxidation of fatty acids and the nucleotide pathway41. A deficiency in CoQ10 has been associated with a variety of human disorders including the direct defect in CoQ10 biosynthesis genes42. CoEQ10 deficiency has been suggested as a mitochondrial dysfunction marker43. This deficiency has been observed in blood plasma from chronic fatigue syndrome44 patients and biochemical dysfunction in metabolism of ATP and oxidative phosphorylation, showing the implication of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome, which is very similar to fibromyalgia45.

This oxidative stress found in the skeletal muscle tissue results in neuro-oxidation. There are neuro-type messenger genes such as Cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNFα, IFNˠ, and GM-CSF. These are neuro messenger genes that send signals to the brain or spine to inform of damage or trauma. In the process of messages and responses from the nervous system, oxidized neuro-material is produced.

An idea, to address this neurological damage is proposed by the employment of Lions Mane mushroom extract in a topical cream application. Lions mane has been shown to induce nerve growth factor46,47 synthesis in vitro and in vivo, which means on cells in a petri dish and in live mammalian subjects. In fact the compound dilinoleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DLPE), derived from Lion’s Mane mushroom reduced oxidative stress in the endoplasmic reticulum of Neruro-2a cells and protected these cells from further oxidation48 from applied toxins. The organic compounds found in Lion’s Mane have demonstrated a propensity to play an active roll on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities46 and is why we believe the delivery of such natural compounds in synergy with CBD and the strong antioxidant properties of Sea Buckthorn, a type of berry; that perhaps pain relief and repair of damaged neurite material can be facilitated.

References

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ABBY’S K2 SERUM

$54.98

INGREDIENTS:

Distilled Water, Lion’s Mane, Seabuckthorn, Black cumin seed oil, Castor oil, Chia seed oil, Coconut oil, Argan oil, Tamanu oil, Joponica camillia oil, Tamanu butter, Shea butter, Sunflower oil, Sea Buckthorn oil, Canabidiol (CBD), Cetyl alcohol, Stearic acid, Xanthan gum, Cannabidiol (CBD), Safflower based phosphtidylcholine, Ethanol, (Germal plus preservative).

Additional information

Weight 2.35 oz
Dimensions 1.75 × 1.75 × 1.75 in

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